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The Heart of TaiPower

Author: Huang Jui-po Electricity plays quite a large role in modern society and the reliance on power in our daily lives has only increased. In fact, in the previous century, the importance of electricity couldn't be understated, and followed the gradual permeation of electrical power into city life, especially with the advent of lampposts and the yearly increase in refrigerator usage. Secondly, Taiwan was squarely placed in a phase of industrialization, with each industry's electricity use increasing, etc.; electrical consumption quickly outstripped the supply. In 1917, Sakurauchi Yukio and others of the Nippon Electric Co. Ltd. started to propose the Sun Moon Lake electric generation plan, hoping that the Government-General of Taiwan would take the reins of operations. The Government-General gradually dispatched technicians to the area to conduct surveys. TheTaiwan Denryoku Kabushikigaishaor Taiwan Electric Power Co. was established in August of 1919. At the same time, it had also begun preparatory work on its Sun Moon Lake works. The power source for the projects came from facilities at Beishankeng. A railway was laid down for the transportation of raw materials between Ershui and Menpaitan and tunnel drilling tests continued to be conducted. In 1920, an electrified railway was laid down between Shuishe and Simajian, Yuchi and Jiadongkeng, and Jiadongkeng and Dongpu for the transportation of raw materials. Construction started on a cableway between Chengshuishe and Dongpu Wujie. However, construction personnel often suffered from life in a primeval zone and tropical diseases including malaria. In 1921, the Government General's Office of Affairs had just finished half of the construction project, and all the construction workers moved to the work center at Sima'an. That same year, the Beishankeng Power Station and Ershui Wai Checheng Railway were announced as having been completed. The electric railway and ropeway construction having been more than half completed, the tunnel drilling still had to be repaired and finished. Construction continued on the new pressure tower works and the iron pipework, tailrace (course) as well as the road in front of the power station. There are many pictures of all these locations, preserving their memory. After completion of the Sun Moon Lake hydroelectric plant, not only was the populace's livelihood impacted, but the power plant also brought about the development of the rice milling, sugar, fertilizer, and bauxite industries. After the Second World War, the electrical systems were restored when the Taiwan Power Co. took over operations of all the facilities that had been bombed out by the American military, under the management of the Director of Electrical and Mechanical Services, Sun Yunjing. In recent years, although the electrical output isn't as high as nuclear energy, the hydroelectric works still retains their place within TaiPower. The interpretation and compilation of this information also includes photos of power plants operated by the Taiwan Power Company in the upper and middle reaches of the Choushui River, to make up for the lack of information in the Taiwan Power Company database for the upper reaches of the river. In the past, visitors could only take photographs of the periphery of the power plant facilities and visitors were unable to take tours of the interiors. An interview team was fortunate enough to record these few areas unknown to the outside world during a visit and gave their interpretation of the information. With the exception of some of Taiwan Power's power plant facilities, starting from the Linnei Power Plant and following upstream all the way to the Wushe Dam, it's said that these power plants or electrical facilities were an evolution of function of the past. How were these industrial facilities constructed? How did Taiwan Power Corporation as the predecessor of Taipower recruit so many workers? What methods were used to build these facilities? The hydroelectric works didn't just form a cultural pathway, but also had a lot of influence on local society and culture. For example, during the Japanese colonial period, Taiwan Electric Power Co., Ltd. also built houses and dormitories for workers when building dams, forming so-called industrial villages. Religious facilities were also installed in these power plant industrial villages; and not only did they include Japanese Shinto shrines, but also continued in the propagation of traditional religions such as temples or shrines to the Earth God, the goal of which was to protect the success of the dam construction, or to protect it after the construction was completed so it wasn't destroyed. These materials are not just contemporary photographs. The team was also fortunate to go to the University of Tokyo, in Japan to shoot the memorial photo album of the Taiwan Power Sun Moon Lake Works issued by the Puli Branch of Tainan News. This photo album contains many old photos of the construction process of Taiwan Electric Power Co., Ltd., including Wujie Dam to the first and second Sun Moon Lake Hydropower Stations. We can tell through these photographs by the Taiwan Electric Power Co. that the construction of the works at Sun Moon Lake were very arduous and difficult. It was more than that though. The photo album also recorded the architects behind the works at that time, including the Taiwan Electric Power Co.'s third company president, Matsuki Kanichiro, who during his tenure, continued to push for the Sun Moon Lake works, and also successfully completed the works during his term. This photo album also includes six engineering contractors at that time, and adds a description on the important works worked on by these contractors, making it so that their contribution to the Sun Moon Lake Public Works will not be forgotten. References: 林蘭芳,〈工業化的推手:日治時期臺灣的電力事業〉,臺北:國立政治大學歷史所博士論文,2003。 林蘭芳,〈工業化的推手:日治時期臺灣的電力事業〉,臺北:國立政治大學歷史所博士論文,2003。 林炳炎,《臺灣電力株式會社發展史》,臺北:林炳炎,1997。 林炳炎,《臺灣電力株式會社發展史》,臺北:林炳炎,1997。 平田榮太郎,《臺灣電力日月潭工事紀念寫真帖》,臺中:臺南新報埔里支局,1933。 平田榮太郎,《臺灣電力日月潭工事紀念寫真帖》,臺中:臺南新報埔里支局,1933。 陳柔縉,《臺灣幸福百事─你想不到的第一次》,臺北:圓神,2011。 陳柔縉,《臺灣幸福百事─你想不到的第一次》,臺北:圓神,2011。 藤崎濟之助,《臺灣電力株式會社沿革史》,臺北:臺灣電力株式會社,1937。 藤崎濟之助,《臺灣電力株式會社沿革史》,臺北:臺灣電力株式會社,1937。 臺灣電力株式會社,《日月潭水力電氣工事誌》,臺北:臺灣電力株式會社,1935。 臺灣電力株式會社,《日月潭水力電氣工事誌》,臺北:臺灣電力株式會社,1935。 吳政憲,〈新能源時代:近代臺灣電力發展(1895-1945)〉,臺北:國立臺灣師範大學歷史研究所博士論文,2003。 吳政憲,〈新能源時代:近代臺灣電力發展(1895-1945)〉,臺北:國立臺灣師範大學歷史研究所博士論文,2003。


Choushui Riverine Resources

Author: Lin Chun-teng The Joining of Agriculture, Water Management and Facilities Water pilfering has been a recurrent problem since Han migrations started. In the Qing period, each of Taiwan's areas had plenty of water stealing, water canal diversion and armed thuggery conflicts. The Chuoshui River did not have a regional organization to manage agricultural water use in the entire basin until the construction of the Babaozhen Canal. Water management was further developed during the Japanese colonial period. Aside from the main truncations of the Baobaozhen Weir in the Choushui River Basin, there were also the Choushui truncation of the Jianan Dazhen Weir, the Zhushan Long'an Weir, the Lugu Dashuiku Weir, and other weirs along the Choushui River Basin that were incorporated, laying an important agricultural foundation for the Basin. The Origins of Industrial Water Use - The Sun Moon Lake Hydroelectric Dam. Asia's first large hydroelectric power plant was constructed in the Japanese period at Sun Moon Lake, called the "Sun Moon Lake Hydropower Station." The waters of the Choushui River flow into an important area of industrial water in one fell swoop and plays no small role in industry due to the large water flow of the Choushui. The Sun Moon Lake Hydroelectric Dam is situated along the middle and upper reaches of the Choushui River and consists of several large-scale industrial projects for water diversion works and generator sets. With the Old Wujie Dam intake structure as an example: the Sun Moon Lake hydroelectric project was to make use of the Choushui River's abundant water and, at the constructed Wujie Dam and intake works, divert and lead water from the Choushui into the hydroelectric dam at Sun Moon Lake. From start to finish, the Sun Moon Lake works took fifteen years to complete with a total cost of more than 68 million yen. More than 2 million people worked on the project over the years, finishing the construction in June of Showa 9 (June, 1934) of the Japanese colonial era. If we take the Lixi Creek intake project as an example, the intake is situated by Lixi Creek in Ren'ai Township, Nantou County. In the picture above, we can see impounding reservoir next to the Lixi Dam, as well as the deep blue waters from the Lixi. The Lixi Intake works includes the constructed Lixi Dam as well as intake channels. It is one of the channel works diverting water into the New Wujie Dam. In Showa 6 (1931) the Taiwan Denryoku Kabushikigaisha or Taiwan Power Company restarted the Sun Moon Lake Hydropower Project, constructing the Wujie Dam and water intake tunnel on the upper reaches of the Choushui River. This fed the water through into Sun Moon Lake, creating electricity. The hydroelectric power plant was finished in Showa 9 (1934). The Wujie Water Diversion Tunnel has been in use since Showa 9 (1934), working around the clock every single year to provide the natural power needed to operate the Sun Moon Lake Power Station, leading to the tunnel clogging with silt. After evaluation, the Taiwan Power Company spent NT$9 billion to construct the New Wujie Tunnel and the Lixi Creek water diversion project and introducing waters from the Lixi Creek into Sun Moon Lake for power generation. Of course, the civil water works introduced by the Japanese at Sun Moon Lake aren't just limited to the above two examples. Placing these works at today's market value could give the works such a high value that it's difficult for us to comprehend by today's standards. Yet, of the various water diversion plans and power generation projects in Sun Moon Lake during the Japanese colonial period, though there's a certain amount of ecological damage that was caused to the upper and middle reaches of the Choushui, on the whole, the geology and the river's course were still the main considerations. There were massive destruction of the geology or excessive damming or water drawn for irrigation, and these works did not impact the demand for agricultural water in the downstream plains. At the same time, it also gave central Taiwan a stable power supply. However, the fate of the Choushui River's industrial usage is far greater than the above. Over-drilling of the Aquifer and Contemporary Water Plundering. From Meiji 40 to 43 (1907-1910), the Japanese government used manual excavation to introduce water from the Choushui River and expand the water diversion scale of the Cizaipi Parapet Channel. In 1911, the Choushui River began flowing along the Xingjian Embankment, never again inundating or swallowing up farmland. The Cizipi Canal mainly irrigates Hsichou Township, Pitou Township, Erlin Town, Pangruan Township and other southwestern areas of Changhua County. Its total length is 23 kilometers, making it the second largest irrigation system in Changhua County. Farmers use the water canals for irrigation, but the river water flow levels aren't stable from season to season. Aquifer well drawing began in the 1950's. After 1950, a well was opened to draw groundwater and it became one of the water sources for irrigation. If we use water in a sustainable fashion, the environmental impact won't be large, however, people's daily increase in their dependence on the underground aquifers and springs, with the addition of heavy water consumption by factories and industry has led to an over-pumping and siphoning of water. This situation is believed to be a cause in land subsidence. Moreover, the water demands for the entire industry haven't decreased. In 1990, as a means of responding to the building of Formosa Plastic's Sixth Light Factory, the Chi-Chi Barrage project was activated, and the entire project started limited operations in 2001. Full operations began the following year. The barrage brought about a stable water supply, but there were also problems that came with it. For example, the Formosa Plastic Sixth Light Factory, the Guoguang Petrochemical, and Phase IV of the Central Taiwan Science Park all source their water from the Chi-Chi barrage. The government also wants agricultural water to support industrial water usage when there’s a water shortage, which has created a conflict where industries are plundering water. Or perhaps the shortage of water is due to the barrage itself. When the dry season comes and affects the lower reaches of the Choushui River, the river itself is often very muddy, not just creating ecological changes, but also leading to a drop in air quality. In addition to the above problems, the Chi-Chi Barrage still has a couple other issues that must be resolved, which also requires a bit of concern from man in order to do so. 而六輕帶來的可不只是用水問題,六輕的煙囪長期以來帶給臺灣中部地區大量的空氣汙染,六輕的頻頻氣爆使環境和工作人員都蒙受損害。而污染則更是大問題,彰化縣大城鄉台西村、芳苑鄉沿海地區都身受其害,每當南風吹起,汙染物與臭味也隨之而來。除此,其興建後造成的海岸侵蝕、對生態和農漁業的衝擊等,都使六輕從提供工作機會的希望轉為當地居民們的噩夢。 The problems brought by the Sixth Light Factory aren't just limited to issues of water. The Sixth Light Factory's smokestack has long brought heavy air pollution to central Taiwan. The factory's frequent air blasts have caused serious damage to both the environment and workers. Pollution is a much bigger problem. The coastal areas of Taixi Village in Dacheng Township and Fangyuan Township (both in Changhua County) all get hit pretty badly. Each time a southerly wind blows, pollution particulate matter and the stench and fumes scatter and dispense along in the breeze. Apart from this, the construction of the factory itself has caused coastal erosion, impacting the ecology and the agricultural and fishing industries. All of the hopes and dreams of job success have turned into a nightmare for locals. From Silty Soil in a Breadbasket to Sandstorms. After the suspended substances in the Choushui River pass through farmland irrigation canals, there is often a thickly accumulated layer of gray and black soil. The residents of Ershui township call it "thoo-ko" (lit. "dirt paste"). In Xizhou Township, it's referred to as "lo-tsui ko-thoo" (Choushui paste) or "oo-kim-thoo" (lit. "black-gold earth") in Taiwanese Hokkien. Despite the differences in local naming, they in fact all refer to the same muddy black soil brought by the waters. In other words, it’s the special "black mud" of the farmland along the Choushui River. The closer the farmland is to the embankments, the more abundant the amount of deposited black soil. The black mud from the Choushui contains calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and isn't simply good for crop growth. Each year, new soil is deposited in the farmland by the river. In earlier eras without the use of chemical fertilizers, there were more "natural fertilizers" in the farmland in the Choushui irrigation area. Because of this, rice grown in paddies irrigated with Choushui River water grew to be the nation-wide-famous "Choushui Rice." However, these deposits of black soil that have been scoured for long periods of time that reach the middle and lower reaches of the Choushui are extremely light and airy particulate matter. In the current day, when large amounts of water are being used for industry, and the Choushui nearly stops flowing in winter, sandstorms have become an environmental problem for residents along the banks of the river. A lot of windbreaks were planted during the Japanese colonial period to help in preventing sandstorms. For example, several decades ago, there was a tree-lined street in the Erxi section (Xihu to Erlin) in Changhua County's Erlin Township. However, with the development of the area in recent years, many of these windbreaker forests have been turned into farmland, construction sites or factory land, leading to ineffectiveness against the formation of sandstorms. Symbiosis of Man and the Environment The Choushui River provides water for agricultural, hydroelectrical and petrochemical uses. The soil and silt from the river provide sustenance for Choushui rice, and peanuts and watermelons are grown in the sands. Different environmental hydrology has given rise to all sorts of industries and human ecologies. It's hoped that one day, both man and the environment can provide mutual respect and reliance on each other, and won't continue towards total domination and plundering, on a road to environmental degradation problems. 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Pre-1700's Settlement and Boundary Markers of the Choushui River

Author: Chang Kai-hui In the history of Han pioneering and opening up lands in Taiwan during the 17th and 18th centuries, we very often neglect to see that much of the land opened up at the time were fields and hunting grounds that belonged to Formosan Indigenous groups. During this pioneering process, there were often bilateral or even multilateral conflicts over land and water resources. The history of settlement in Taiwan is a history of blood and tears marked by pools and pools of blood that has left many related cultures and historical artifacts that give proof of the events of the past. The Qing ruled Taiwan from 1683 until 1895 - a total of 212 years. They had a negative attitude towards Taiwan via instituting a policy of "ruling Taiwan to prevent uprisings." In Kangxi 60 (1722), the Zhu Yigui Revolt sounded an alarm to the Qing court about their governance of Taiwan and changed the appearance of Qing rule during the dynasty's early period. Apart from the inaugural year of the Yongzheng emperor in which Changhua County was established, Admiral Lan Tingzhen along with plains indigenous peoples from Anli-she quelled the rebellion and obtained a writ permitting the opening up of farmlands, drawing in great numbers of migrants who stole themselves away to Taiwan. The majority of these migrants settled in the Taichung Basin, opened up farmlands and started work on constructing weirs and ditches. Additionally, the Liudui Hakka of Pingtung County were viewed as having righteously served the Qing in helping to suppress rebellions, which also prompted the Qing court to lift a ban on Cantonese migrations to Taiwan. Starting in the first year of the Yongzheng emperor's reign, Hakka migrants began moving to Taiwan en masse. Following the Zhu Yigui uprising, the Qing court again immediately set up a border separating Han settlements from Indigenous lands. Along the west side of the Chukou mesa and the west side of the Bagua Shan tableland in present Yunlin County, and south towards "Moe-a Mountain" (now Meishan in Chiayi County), Taliwu (now Tuku in Yunlin County) at the foot of Mayuan Mountain, Angukeng junction (modern-day Jinyunlin Gukeng), Dokliap-bun (now Douliu, Yunlin County) at the foot of Xiaojianshan, and north to the outside of Sikau (now Chu Kou Shan in Yunlin), Dongluo's Gu-sio-tak-san (now the Bagua Shan Plateau near Ershui in Changhua County). The Qing court's intention was to list the entire Shuishalian area in a broad sense (the land to the east of the boundary markers) as a forbidden area of reclamation. In Yongzheng 3 (1725), the Qing court established a naval shipyard and created "army barracks" in the mountains to make it easier for harvesting hardwoods. One of the contradictions of this was in the workshops in central Taiwan (in the border areas of modern-day Changhua, Nantou and Taichung) which were located outside the Han-Indigenous boundary line. Following the advancement of lumber camps into the mountainous interior, Han migrants raced to cultivate and colonize the mountains, increasingly encroaching on the many indigenous settlements of the Shuishalian and their livelihood. Following an increase in immigration, the scope of land reclamations continued to skyrocket, leading to enmity with Indigenous inhabitants who responded with violence in defense of their lands. The violence that erupted during Yongzheng 1 occurred in Shuishalian (modern day Sun Moon Lake) with the "Gu-zong Affair." The main offenses are represented by the violence that rocked the Tachia west village of the Makas tribe. In Yongzheng 4 (1726), the Qing court sent a punitive expeditionary force using over a thousand assimilated Plains Indigenes in the "Gu-Zong Affair." This army was split into northern and southern forces travelling along different routes of the old Shuishalian trail, going into the deep recesses of the mountains to rout out and apprehend Gu-zong (the chief of Shui-she), and other important members of the tribe. In total, the Qing and their allies took 85 heads in what is called the "Shuishalian Campaign." During this process of suppression, it also opened up a connection road for Han settlers to advance into the inner mountainous areas along the Shuishalian Old South Trail from Chi-Chi-Po. Not only was this route used to beat a retreat by Lin Shuangwen during the uprising named after him at the end of emperor Qianlong's reign, it also became the route used by the Han general Guo Bainian and others who lead an army of more than two thousand troops into the Puli area during an invasion sanctioned by the Jiaqing emperor. In Jiaqing 21 (1816), Qing officials posted a border marker at the fork between the Choushui and Wuxi Rivers at Chi-Chi that stated, "it is strictly forbidden to enter, trespassers will be executed." It was forbidden for Han migrants to enter Puli to establish farmland. With the unrelenting movements eastward into more mountainous regions of Taiwan and the unhalted expansion of farmland reclamation, the Qianlong emperor tried three times in his 15th (1750, 25th (1760) and 53rd (1788) years of reign to redraw the borders between Han and Indigenous lands - the Tu Niu Ditch, which stipulated that Han immigrants were not permitted to cross over the boundary line to open up farmland in Indigenous territories. And yet, the Tu Niu Ditch was incapable of preventing the relentless intrusion and cultivation, plundering, and stealing of lands and their fallouts. For example, in Qianlong 16 (1751), the total number of illegally cultivated fields in Po-a following Commander Lee You's survey of the settlement (present-day Zhushan, Nantou County) reached up to 1,571 jia (15,237,392 square meters). The only solution officials could come up with was to legalize the land developments and list outside lands as prohibited from farming or development. They didn't think that local farmers and Plains Indigenes would continue to secretly steal the land. Li Chaolong, a local landholder, wanted to combine his lands in Hsiaping (now in the north-central part of Zhushan) with illegally developed farmland, claiming that Wu Sheng Li was trying to occupy his land, wherein Li demanded the farmer pay his rent which led to conflict. Later, the Qing viceroy to Taiwan designated all private reclaimed land as forbidden land, setting up a stone stele tablet strictly prohibit and disallow reclamation, then ordering the farmers to disperse and abandon the land. From the establishment of a naval shipyard, the Qing court deployed military craftsmen across the border lines into the interior mountains to harvest lumber, and ordered Plains Indigenes to build settlements on the borders between Han-populated and Indigenous lands to expand farmland. These settlements were responsible for the safe comings and goings of military craftsmen. From this, military craftsmen, Plains Indigenous settlements, and Han migrants slowly started logging old growth forests and undergrowth and secretly opened up more lands for development beyond the Han-Indigenous boundary lines. The three groups hand to contend with the risk of headhunters from the Indigenous tribes of the interior. Lugu was one of several important logging areas. Because of repeated miracles and the foreboding of imminent attacks by Indigenes, the "Shamed Patriarch" became a staple object of worship and veneration. Much of the early logging along the Choushui River originated in Xiufeng Village, on Daping peak in Lugu. Logs would be floated down the river from Lugu along crystalline waters, heading north up to the Choushui River, where it would then be floated west. At last, the logs would be transported to Mingjian and Ershui in Nantou County on the lower reaches of the Choushui. Loggers would very frequently make use of the canals and channels to transport their raw materials. The "Mingjian Fengdaoxuan Prohibition" stele, erected in Qianlong 30 (1765), clearly prohibits loggers from acting as they saw fit, stating that the Mingjian Tongyuan Weir and the Erbashui Weir and earthen embankments were damaged by the logging flows, impacting the farm irrigation along the lower reaches of the rivers. There is also the example of the "Zhushan Lianxing Temple Li Zhenqing Memorial Stele," which describes how bamboo farmers would bundle bamboo and wood together and float it down the Choushui River to the Beidou market for sale. This stele records how Li Zhenqing resolved a blackmail dispute over a "boatswain," where it was agreed upon that for each bundle of bamboo, there would need to be 200 pieces of incense joss burned for the Lianxing Temple and the Yuanshuai Temple. It's because of this tale that the Lianxing temple erected a stele in his name. In Qianlong 56 (1791), the "Qingshuigou Cooked Barbarians Land Tracts notification stele" was erected - the "Qingshuigou Cheqianlou Boundary Site" indicates how Han migrants invaded and cultivated the farmland, and were included in the scope and boundaries of Pingpu land tract rentals. We know from the results of history that all the Tu-Niu Ditches and boundary markers were ineffective at stymying people's desire to own land. Each line of history or there within has a thin margin. In the long river of history, if we can learn from our mistakes and not repeat the past, then that is the most important takeaway of the value of writings on history.


Old Trees of the Choushui River Basin

Author: Lin Chun-Teng During Taiwan's early settlement phase, each village had it's own accompanying temples and shrines, private academies and official residences, where planting trees was a habit. Most of the trees planted at these locations were primarily camphors, banyans and bishop woods. Floods came with the passage of time. These trees that were first erected as settlements were established had slowly become centenarian trees or sacred trees, standing immovable, giving proof of all the various assortments of change that developed in these communities. Now, let's take a look at some of these grand old trees that give us a glimpse into these communities along with Choushuei River! The Hundred-year-old Tree of Ku-a-thau. In Ku-a-thau, the old name for Yufeng Village, Shuili Township in Nantou County, there's an old legend about the village's Nantian Temple, rumored to have a history spanning back 200 years. In the 1960's, the original earthen and tiled structure collapsed and was reconstructed into the current building we see today. Behind this temple in the Yongle alleyway, we can see a sacred mango tree that's been around for more than three hundred years. It's got a height of about 16 meters, a cross-cut diameter of 1.3 meters, a circumference of 4.3 meters. It's listed as one of several historic old trees by the Nantou County government. Mangoes were a snack favorite for many children growing up back in the day, and many local seniors have fond memories of picking mangoes from this tree. There was once a builder who wanted to cut down the tree to put up a house and this builder went to the Nantian Temple next door to ask for fortune-telling guidance from above. The gods repeatedly denied his fortune-telling request to cut down the tree, and he finally gave up his plans to build the house. The Old Camphor of Chi-Chi There is a giant camphor tree in front of the Dazhong-Ye Temple in Chichi, Nantou County. The tree is about four hundred to seven hundred years old. It has a canopy height of about 30 meters, a circumference of 5.3 meters and its shade can reach up to 908 square meters. It is one of the oldest centenarian trees listed by the Nantou County government. During the Meiji Era, the camphor business was booming in Chichi, and camphor trees were being chopped down left and right. Legend has it that the Old Man of the Camphors didn't permit the citizens chopping down his camphor tree brethren, and under the condition that the citizens replant the trees, one day when the birthday for the gods of Dazhong-Ye temple was near, under everyone's watch, the branches of the camphor broke off in response and the legend then spread to neighboring areas. During the 8-7 Flood in 1959, this old camphor tree saved the lives of several hundred villagers with its tall, sturdy branches. Locals thanked the tree by placing a red, blessed roped around the tree to show their sincerity and veneration of the tree. The Six Coraltrees and Grandfather Camphor and the Ward Stone of Tai-shan. The six coral trees and grandfather camphor stone ward of Taishan are located next to Liuhe Elementary School in Xindong Township, Yunlin County. Under this two hundred and fifty-year-old tree, there is a Tai-Shan shigandang statue. Shigandang stones, tablets, and statues are used in the prevention and exorcism of evil and for good blessings. Liuhe Village is locally called Sin-chhng-a. the century-old camphor tree in the town is listed as the 35th officially recognized historic tree by the Yunlin County government. There's a newly built "Zhang-Lao-Ye" shrine underneath the tree as well as a newer plastic Tai-Shan shigandang used for offerings. Though the ancient shigandang ward is already damaged, it's still situated under the camphor tree. Where it's placed, there's an important meaning of blessings, education, and rest. The Sacred Tree of Yung-Hsing The Yung-hsing Sacred Tree, sometimes called the "Great Niuwenlu Camphor," is found on the south bank of the Choushui River next to a big bend in the river-side road by the Yung-hsing Recreation Center at 117 Linpeng Lane, in Shuili Township, Yung-hsing Village in Nantou county. The tree species isCinnamomum camphora,and it's over three hundred years old! It's got a circumference of 6.2 meters (you would need two to three people's arms to be able to wrap around the tree once), it's trunk diameter is 1.6 meters, and its canopy reaches about 26 meters tall. Its canopy is about 400 square meters wide. It's an evergreen tree with oval-shaped foliage. If you rub the leaves together, there's an extraordinarily strong camphor aroma that hits your nostrils. The old Camphor of Yung-hsing is formed from three mother and child trees. In fact, they sprouted from the same root system. The first-generation growth is actually the mother tree and the second-generation trees are child trees that grew from the root system of the mother tree. The Bishop wood of Lengshuikeng The old bishopwood tree of Lengshuikeng is situated at 39 Zhonghe Road in the Zhonghe Village in Nantou's Chushan Township. There are two large bishop trees as well as a mango tree. The largest old bishop wood is fondly called "Old Man Bishopwood" by locals. This tree is around 20 meters tall, has a cross-cut diameter of 1.8 meters, trunk circumference of 5.6 meters. Its canopy width is about 300 square meters and it's about 300 years old. On August 7th, 1959, Typhoon Ellen brought the "8-7 Flood." At the time, the waters of the Choushui River rose dramatically. During the ensuing panic, villagers climbed up into the branches of the tree escaping with their lives. As a way of expressing their thanks and gratitude to this tree, there's still a marker that commemorates the how the tree saved the local villagers from drowning. The Fording Bishop Wood of Sheliao This bishopwood is to the side of Shuiwei Road, Sheliao Village, Chushan Township. There's an Earth God temple built next to the tree. There's also a plaque beneath the tree, erected in 2000 to commemorate how the tree was used to ford across the river. Legend has it that early on, this old bishopwood had a roped tied around its trunk, being used to cross over the Choushui River, because of this tale, the tree was called the "Du-Chuan-Yi" or the "Fording Tree"; There is another legend centered around the concept of Feng-shui, that this bishopwood tree was firmly rooted into a sandbar along the river, its "fragrant feet" holding steady against flowing water around it. It's for this reason that the fording tree holds an important place in the hearts of locals. 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Author: Chen Chun-wei Babaozhen, situated in Changhe Village, Ershui Township, Changhua County, along with Tainan's Tongyen canal and Hsinchu's Lon-en Canal, have been called the "Three Great Canals of Taiwan." Its irrigation tracts reach more than 19,000 chia (more than 45,000 acres) in area, including more than half the land in Changhua county. It's also the main waterway canal in the Changhua Plain. From Ershui township, the Choushui River diverts into the canals. From Bi-a-thau (today's Ershui headwaters area) the river splits into one half that flows west along the First Babaozhen Canal and the other half which flows southwest along the Second Babaozhen Canal. The First Babaozhen Canal was constructed by Shih Shih-pang in Kangxi 58 (1719) under the account of Shih Chang-ling. Construction consisted of water canals to irrigate the Dongluo Dongbao (now Ershui, Yongjing, Tianzhong), Dongluo Xibao (Beidou, Pitou), Wudongbao (Tanzhong, Shetou), Wuxibao (Yuanlin, Xihu) , Yanwu Shangbao (Huatan, Xiushui), Yanwuxiabao (Dacun, Yuanlin), Mazhi Shangbao (Lugang, Fuxing, Puyan and parts of Xiushui Township), and Xiandongbao (Dapu, Changhua City) Tongtong), and are collectively referred to as "Babaozhen." Work on the the Second Babaozhen Canal, also known as the Fifteen Villages Canal, was initiated by Huang Shih-Ch'ing during the 60th reign year of the Kangxi emperor (1721). The Fifteen Villages Irrigation canals, Ershui and Shetou canals were incorporated into the Babaozhen Canal during Meiji 21 (1907). It was managed by the "Public Irrigation Works Collective," and was called the Babao Second Weir. The Legendary Mr. Lin Early in the construction of the Babaozhen Canal, Shih Shih-pang was engineering the canal head at Bi-a-thau in Wudongbao, draining the water of the Choushui River into the canal. The canal route was already completed, but Shih couldn't get the water to flow into the canal. At the time, Shih Shih-pang was offering a reward of 1,200 pieces of gold in the hopes that he could find someone to solve the problem. Tradition has it that an old man came forward to give his guidance. Using rattan, and tying together wood or bamboo stakes, he created weir baskets, which were then filled with stones. Following this, these weir baskets were piled into the middle of the river to create a dam, forcing the waters to flow into the canal. In relying on this engineering method, Shih Shih-pang succeeded in getting the water to enter the Babaozhen Canal, turning a parched dust basin into a breadbasket paradise. Shih Shih-pang tried to pay the man over 2000 pieces of gold to thank him for his labor, but the old man refused. He didn't want to reveal his identity either, and so he was called "Mr. Lin" before departing. Later generations were touched by Mr. Lin's benevolence, and so they built a "Mr. Lin Temple" as a way of memorializing him. Stone Weirs "笱" is pronounced "gou" in mandarin and pronounced "ko" in Taiwanese. These conical weir baskets are created by using Makino bamboo or logs and bound together with rattan and formed into the shape of a conical fishing weir basket. When used, they would be filled with stones. In the past, they were traditionally called "Chioh-ko." When the stone weirs were put into place, they would mostly use "angular" weirs and use "rounded" weirs second. The volume of the round weirs was rather small, and they were placed in between the angled weirs to fill in the gaps, helping to smooth over where there weren't enough angular weirs. If the waters were very deep, the largest weir they could make was about 12 chih or about 276 cm. If there was a need for filling in a tall gap, round weirs could be piled up high. Both types of weirs were used to complement one another. Working In the Buff Laborers working in the river repairing the canals were often completely naked. In past eras of prudishness, it's even a wonder that anyone would work in the buff, but locals around the Choushui River viewed it as par for the course. The reason being that the Choushui River is filled with fine silt. The waters of the upper reaches of the Choushui are filled with brittle and soft dirt, and it's easy for dirt to erode and collapse away, leading to the Choushui having a high amount of sand and silt. Because the sediment is viscous, the sandy silt sticks to clothing fibers very easily and it's quite difficult to wash it out. It's also very easy for such clothing to cause friction and tear at a person's skin, causing inflammation and irritation. Nobody batted an eye as working in the nude along the river was seen as a realistic, practical necessity. Ceremonies and Rites - The Paoshui Festival The "Paoshui-Jie" or Running Water Festival is a local ceremony held at the mouth of the Babaozhen weir in Changhua County's Ershui Township. It's also called the "Babaozhen Festival" and the "Water Ceremony." The festival has its origins from the time that the Babaozhen Canal was built by Shih Shih-pang and the mysterious Mr. Lin, irrigating the Changhua Plain and turning Changhua into a bountiful breadbasket. To thank them for this gift, the farmers hold a Water-flowing ceremony. They burn incense and worship at the head of the drainage canal and send out a few strong people who are responsible for water diversion. They must wear reed-woven raincoats, straw sandals, have red bandanas tied around their heads, and present fruits and other sacrificial goods. They wait for a fortuitous hour to open up the sluice gates. When the water gates are opened, the water diverters must continue running forward against the onrushing waters. This is the "Paoshui" or "water-running" ceremony. In 1995, the Cultural Construction Committee of the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China held an art installation event in Ershui Township called the "Legend of Babaozhen." The Paoshui Festival was once again shared with the world. Since the beginning of 2003, the Changhua County Government changed the timing when the Paoshui Festival occurs from October to November, combining the festival with tourism development to become an important cultural celebration. In 2015, the festival was combined with a marathon, promoted as the "Love Ershui Marathon." 300 meters of the embankment were turned into part of the running course, creating a unique marathon course experience. References: 陳水源,〈八堡圳開築工程大功業〉,《臺灣學研究通訊》,創刊號(臺北,2006),頁37-49。 陳水源,〈八堡圳開築工程大功業〉,《臺灣學研究通訊》,創刊號(臺北,2006),頁37-49。 石瑞彬,〈八堡圳相關史事雜談〉,國史館臺灣文獻館電子報第57期。 石瑞彬,〈八堡圳相關史事雜談〉,國史館臺灣文獻館電子報第57期。 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北:衛城,2014。 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北:衛城,2014。 劉峯松,《陳慶芳文集》,財團法人半線文教基金會,2020。 劉峯松,《陳慶芳文集》,財團法人半線文教基金會,2020。 二水鄉公所,「二水跑水祭」,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年9月5日) 二水鄉公所,「二水跑水祭」,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年9月5日)


Water-Worshipping Rites of the Choushui River Watershed

Author: Kuo Lee-hwan Taiwan is a mountainous country, which leads to its rivers having the characteristics of having short embankments and swift flows. Whenever there are torrential rains or a typhoon bears down on the area, flash floods occur frequently. There's been multiple flood disasters recorded in history concerning the Choushui River. Thus, among the settlements along the shores of the lower reaches, there are many tales and legends of miracles occurring during the floods. Many of these miracles occurred through the suppression of floods via differentyashengwuguardian tablets, wards, and other talismans. Apart from a shared Taoist folk-religion belief system, each particular locale's residents along the Choushui River have very peculiar beliefs regarding "water." This kind of water culture festival doesn't only exist along the Choushui River watershed either. Other areas in Taiwan also have similar water rituals. For example, there's the Lanyang River in Yilan County, Taitung's Xinwugong River, Taichung's Tachia River, the Kaop'ing River in Pingtung County, and the Cengwen and Yenshui Rivers in Tainan, and so on. In spite of the ceremonies around "water" that have sprouted up here and there over the past century along the Choushui River having different names and occurring at different times, the meanings and implications are extremely similar. They are all conducted as a means to pray for peace in all things and for the river to not flood again. Each festival day, local residents will present offerings on the embankments or at the edge of the water, where they are offered as sacrifices to the river gods or water ghosts. These traditional water ceremonies fully reflect man's long-held awe and fear of water. First up is the "Ruitian Village Baitifang" held in Lugu along the middle reaches of the Choushui in Nantou County. Ruitian Village is a community built along the river itself. In early times, it was often flooded. As a result, over the past hundred years, there's been a "Baitianfang" ceremony held. Each year on the 23rd day of the 9th lunar calendar month, village residents prepare three sacrificial animals (a pig, a chicken and a fish, nowadays, baked bread shaped to look like these animals), and rice as offerings. They walk with the offerings to the bottom of the creek and give their respects to the embankment. Following the start of the ceremonies in 2013, the location for the ceremony was switched from Ruilong Temple to Shuixian Temple within Ruitian Village. After 2019, the main priest of Ruilong Temple stated that the festival could be cancelled and not performed again. Xizhou Township, along the northern banks of the Choushui's lower reaches in Changhua County, still has many villages that have preserved water worshipping rituals. Every seventh month of the lunar calendar, there's a string of ceremonies performed to revere the Choushui River. The earliest ceremonies are held on the first day of the seventh month. They are the "Chenggong Village Baixiqian" and "Tianyuan Village Baixiqian." Chenggong Village was originally called Hsiaba. Residents follow local traditions, one of which is to go down to the river embankment to carry out a river ceremony. The village's Fuling Gong temple hosted the "Baixiqian" ritual, with participants hailing from Chenggong Village, Xialiao, Zhongliao, Shangliao, Zhenliao Village and Xipan Village. The ritual begins at 1:30 pm with the burning of incense and finishes around 5:00 pm. The residents of Tianyuan Village, however, prepare dried foods or meals, sacrificial offerings, fruits, and other goods, as well as joss paper. They first gather at the Aitian Temple where the carry out their yearly Baixiqian ceremony. After villagers arrive in the temple courtyard, they drink blessed water to purify their bodies, and respectfully invite the gods and celestial lords to take a tour, and go together towards the dike next to the creek bed to carry out the ceremonies. When the ceremony is being carried out, the first deity to be worshipped is "Fa Zhu Gong." Next, village residents will once more raise lit incense sticks and face the Choushui River. For the next hour, they will sort and arrange joss paper and then burn it in offering. The entire ceremony process takes about two hours to complete. The next ceremony we will talk about is the "Dazhuang Village Dazhuang Baixiqian," which takes place on the fourteenth day of the seventh lunar month. The event beings at around 10:00 am on the day of the ceremony. Many residents will have converged on the embankment in front of the Kaitian-gong temple grounds. They will prepare offerings and place them on a table facing in the direction of the temple. During this time, there's several self-prepared offerings that continue to be brought forward by residents. Incense is burned at 1:00 pm during the main ceremony at Kaitian Temple. Once everyone has made prayers to the bodhisattva Guanyin, the villagers will then ambulate in a circle; At around 3:30 pm, the villagers will continue on towards the embankment where they will burn joss paper. The entire event ends around 4:00 pm. The "Dazhuang Village Sang-a-kha Baixiqian" is performed on the same day. Sang-a-kha is a subsidiary settlement of Tachuang Village. Unlike Dazhuang Village, Sang-a-kha's ceremony isn't performed on a river embankment, but next to the Bi Creek, in the center of the village, on the Ren-guan Bridge on Xinsheng Lane. Bi Creek is a part of the old Chuoshui River course and is currently the first water release route in the Yuzibei Canal. There's no public ceremony carried out in Sang-a-kha. Village residents each come to give offerings of ready-made dry goods or simple dishes. After they've given the offerings, they prepare paper joss money for burning and give the offerings to the "good older brothers and sisters" (a euphemism for good-natured spirits and ghosts) with an air of respect. The day of the Ghost Festival, on the 15th day of the 7th lunar month, Chaoyang Village and Zhangcuo Village hold a joint ceremony. Statues of the main deities from the Nantian Temple will be taken to the Chaoyang river embankment, facing the Choushui River, with prayers made for no more floods, and that the spirits of the deceased will be placated. This is the "Chaoyang Village, Zhangcuo Village Pu An Ding." At 10:00 am the day of, temple staff first prepare an offering table on the embankment, joss paper money, as well as some meat and vegetable offerings that are placed on the table. Residents also bring their own offerings of rice dumplings, meats, and canned goods. At 1:00 pm, statues of the main deities of the Nantian Temple, Lord Guan Shengdijun and Nezha, are paraded around Chaoyang Village. Finally, they come to the observation deck at the No. 2 Chaoyangcuo embankment where they are prepared for a worship ceremony. At 2:00 pm, the temple staff raise up lit incense sticks and the crowd prays towards the Choushui River; At 3:00 pm, the crowd burns paper money on the outside of the embankment and the ceremony then concludes. Also held on the same day is the "Xipan Village Stupa Pu-du," performed by the Wusheng Temple. The temple staff first set up an altar for offerings. Apart from the temple preparing offerings, regular people are also free to bring offerings as well. The stupa pu-du ceremony is entirely staffed by the temple personnel. Staff members place all the offerings facing the location of the stone stupa tower according to the direction of worship. After the gods guarding the scene are invited out and placed in the direction of the stone tower, the sacrificial ceremony begins. At about 3:00 pm, the ceremony finishes. The temple staff collect joss paper money into a single area and light it safely, then the ceremony is completed. Given a lot of attention in recent years is the "Taixi Village Bai Xi Wang" in Dacheng Township in Changhua County, taking place on the 16th day of the 7th lunar calendar month. Residents of Taixi Village shoulder offerings carried on poles, and in bamboo baskets to the embankment by the Choushui River, praying to the heavens, to the earth, and to the river god. So far, most village residents still hoist traditionally woven bamboo baskets for their offerings with just a handful reverting to using plastic baskets and containers. About half of the village residents still cook their own food offerings, mostly comprised of vegetarian meals, place-holder molds of the three sacrifices (pig, chicken, and fish-shaped bread loaves), fruit. Some also offer cookies or other biscuits, instant noodle packages, and canned foods for their main offerings. The ritual is carried out for about two hours, starting from 1:00 pm until 3:00 pm. At the end of the ceremony, everyone present goes down to the river-side wall of the embankment to burn joss paper money. After finishing the ceremony, the residents take their offerings back home. With the ebb and flow of different eras and times, stable embankments have been built along the Choushui River, and especially after the official opening of the Chi-chi Weir in 2002, the Choushui River is no longer an area where flooding is prevalent as was the case in bygone days. After visiting several of the communities along the Choushui River, we discovered that some of the festivities and ceremonies have all but disappeared, but that also, some continue on, going strong. Moreover, with the migration of younger people out of the area, and the subsequent aging of these communities, these kinds of unique water ceremonies and rituals are gradually simplifying from their more elaborate former manifestations. References: 楊家祈,〈臺南拜溪墘祭儀與聚落變遷之研究〉,臺南:國立臺南大學臺灣文化研究所碩士論文,2016。 楊家祈,〈臺南拜溪墘祭儀與聚落變遷之研究〉,臺南:國立臺南大學臺灣文化研究所碩士論文,2016。 「拜溪王」,保庇NOW,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年8月7日) 「拜溪王」,保庇NOW,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年8月7日) 「我愛溪洲:柑園村拜溪墘」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日) 「我愛溪洲:柑園村拜溪墘」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日 「我愛溪州:溪州水文化調查工作坊 day3」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日) 「我愛溪州:溪州水文化調查工作坊 day3」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日 「我愛溪州:溪州水文化調查工作坊 day4」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日) 「我愛溪州:溪州水文化調查工作坊 day4」,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年9月30日) 許聖松,「鹿谷鄉瑞田村「拜堤防」習俗」,老古板的古建築之旅,,網址:。(瀏覽日期:2019年10月1日) 許聖松,「鹿谷鄉瑞田村「拜堤防」習俗」,老古板的古建築之旅,,網址:。(瀏覽日期:2019年10月1日 彰化縣大城鄉臺西村村民報導,2018年8月26日採訪。 彰化縣大城鄉臺西村村民報導,2018年8月26日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉柑園村村民報導,2019年8月1日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉柑園村村民報導,2019年8月1日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉成功村村民報導,2019年8月1日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉成功村村民報導,2019年8月1日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉大庄村村民報導,2019年8月14日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉大庄村村民報導,2019年8月14日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉西塔村村民報導,2019年8月14日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉西塔村村民報導,2019年8月14日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉潮洋村、張厝村村民報導,2019年8月15日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉潮洋村、張厝村村民報導,2019年8月15日採訪。 南投縣鹿谷鄉瑞田村村民報導,2019年8月29日採訪。 南投縣鹿谷鄉瑞田村村民報導,2019年8月29日採訪。


Yashengwu Guardian talismans of the Choushui River Watershed

Author: Kuo Lee-hwan The Choushui river is the longest river in Taiwan. With an area spreading up to 3,156.9 square kilometers, it's only second in area to the Kaop'ing River Basin. Flooding often occurred on the Choushui River during the Qing rule period. Following Japanese colonization, during Meiji 31 (1898), there was another massive flood - the Wuxu Flood. The rushing floodwaters came down from the waters of the Hsiluo River and entered into the Choushui River course (from Ershui towards Lukang, Fuxingfang to the Taiwan Strait, today's Donghsiluo), causing the old Choushui River to change its main course towards its present location along its lower reaches. The Wuxu Flood created massive loss of life on both banks of the Choushui. In light of this, in the first year of the Taisho emperor's reign (1912), the Taiwan Governor-General's Office began carrying out revetment and embankment works on the banks of the Choushui River. Three years later, the project was completed, and the river flow was redirected back to its original course along the Choushui River and along the Hsiluo River. This is the Choushui River that we can see today. We're told from past records that there were constant flood disasters in earlier times along the Choushui River prior to the planned revetments and embankment works. In the settlements along the lower sections of the river, there are many legends told about miracles that happened during floods, and many of these miracles utilized different "talismans" to control the floodwaters.Yashengwu, or guardian wards, were also referred to as "evil repellants," and had the role of suppressing evil, exorcism and disaster aversion, and maintaining peace. The original meaning of "yasheng" is similar to an incantation or a prayer used to control and defeat an evil target. Later, it was transformed via folk beliefs into a sort of control on taboos, or otherwise, things that were evil and or vicious. Because of their role in warding off evil, they developed into often-seen examples such asshigandangplaced at road intersections or the iconic wind-lions found on Kinmen. Most of the guardian stones and talismans that we see presently within the Choushui watershed have an inseparable connection to the suppression of flood waters, but the appearances and forms of these different wards are all quite different. Based on where they're placed, one may see differentyashengwuin the townships of Ershui, Xizhou and Zhutang on the northern banks of the Choushui in Changhua County. Different examples of ward talismans and markers are also present along the southern banks in the townships of Cihtong and Hsiluo in Yunlin County. Among theseyashengwuwards, those in Changhua County are primarily stone markers or stone towers, and the wards one can more often see in Yunlin County areshigandang-style warding statues. In Ershui Township along the northern banks of the Choushui River in Changhua County, one can see the "Ershui Tifang Guosheng Pai." Legend has it that during the Wuxu Flood in 1898, the racing floodwaters quickly submerged all the houses up to their roofs. All of a sudden, the force of the water switched directions and headed west. After the waters receded, the villagers discovered a wooden tablet by the riverside. On it were carved the words "Guo Sheng Wang." Everyone in the village believed that disaster was averted thanks to the deified spirit of Koxinga coming to protect them. Thus, everyone combined efforts to set up a monument commemorating the "Guo Sheng Wang." Standing at 190 cm tall and 135 cm wide, it was erected in Ershui Township during the Taisho era during the Japanese colonial period. At the entrance to Jiumei Village from Touqian Road in Xizhou Township, there's a stone tablet with the name "Jiumei Village Taishan Shigandang." It is said that long ago, this tablet came floating along from Dongxiluo when it was found by a villager and enshrined in it's current location. Originally, the worshipped tablet was made from a piece of wood with the characters carved. Owing to the tablet being made out of wood, it rotted away rather quickly. The villagers replaced it with a stone tablet, the outside of which was encased in a frame of concrete to help protect it, with a roof structure added later. There's an offering table in front of the tablet which locals use when coming to pray for peace. Unique to Xipan Village, theXizhou Stone Pagodahas a five-sided exterior. It has a height of 3 meters combining stone and cement filler. The peak at the top of the pagoda is gourd shaped. In the early years, Dongluo Creek flowed through the north of this village. According to historical records, there was once a severe flood in Dongguang 22 (1842). The villagers had a belief in the Lord Guanyu of the Wusheng Temple, who manifested himself to them, directing the villagers to erect a stone pagoda as a means of breaking the flood. Once the pagoda was built, no flood ever wreaked havoc again. Due to gradual weathering of the exterior, local villagers rebuilt the outside stone masonry in 1978 to protect it from further damage. There is a "Kengcuo Village Amida Buddha Stele" located near the intersection of Fude Road and Xilin Road. Legend has it that when the Choushui River had flooded a century before, there was an old farmer who picked up a piece of stone tablet from a bamboo grove. Inscribed on the top was the blessing "Nanwu Amituofou" or the incantation for praying to the Amida Buddha. After the villagers carried out a divination ceremony, a tablet relic was erected for worship. Since then, Kengcuo Village has been spared the suffering of flooding. Additionally, at the junction between Yongan Village in Zhutang Township and Neixin Village, there is the "Zhutang Amida Buddha Stele" erected next to the Jiukuaicuo embankment adjacent to the Choushui River. The words "Amida Buddha" are carved out in large fonts. The top of the stele has the two characters Yue (月) and Mao (眉) carved in a smaller font. According to early records, it was reported that there was a plank that closely resembled a plaque like those used in temples. The driftwood floated along the river to this area, where it was scavenged by a villager. It was later erected as a religious marker for worship. During the Japanese colonial period, the Governor-General's Office built up embankments on the Choushui River. The village residents moved this stele to the top of the embankment for worship, but because of the irregularity of flooding, residents once more moved the stone tablet to its present position next to the embankment in 1966. While most of the protectiveyashengwumonuments and wards along the northern banks of the Choushui River in Changhua County make use of stone tablets, there are two locations on the southern banks in Yunlin County that useshigandangfor protection. The first of these twoshigandangstones is the "Cihtong Mayuan Village Shigandang" located next to the Luchang canal. The exterior appearance is that of a stone tablet, with the word "shigandang (石敢當)" carved into the top. There is an incense censer and an offering table placed in front of the tablet. The other, isHsiluo Taishan Shigandanglocated on top of the Choushui River embankment in Hsiluo Township. It was first built in the 7th year of the Daoguang Emperor during the Qing Dynasty (1827). The stoneshigandangwas carved out of sandstone, with the top end in the shape of a lion's head. It is the earliest madeshigandangin all of Taiwan. This relic has been moved due to several floods, having been most recently moved in 2003. In years past, the Choushui River would often flood. To protect themselves from flood disasters, residents of Hsiluo built thisshigandangstele to suppress the floods. The seldom-seen characters "taishan" (泰山) are carved plainly up at the top of the stele. It's carved there to help resist against the surging waters of the Choushui River. Although flooding in the present day is steadily decreasing, the protective wards and monuments and legends of the riverside towns and villages are still a closely tied part of locals' lives. Protective ward stones and tablets don't just provide a flood-preventing function, even more so, they have already become a part of residents' prayers for safety and prosperity in their daily life. References: 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北市:衛城出版,2014。 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北市:衛城出版,2014。 周宗賢總編纂,《二水鄉志:歷史文物篇》,彰化:二水鄉公所,2002。 周宗賢總編纂,《二水鄉志:歷史文物篇》,彰化:二水鄉公所,2002。 洪長源,《溪州鄉情》,彰化:溪州鄉公所,1995。 洪長源,《溪州鄉情》,彰化:溪州鄉公所,1995。 劉克敏,《入門溪州:外省媳婦愛農鄉》,臺北:萬卷樓,2018。 劉克敏,《入門溪州:外省媳婦愛農鄉》,臺北:萬卷樓,2018。 洪長源,〈阿彌陀佛碑〉,《大家來寫村史43—竹塘九塊厝》(彰化:彰化縣文化局,2018年1 月),頁104-106。 洪長源,〈阿彌陀佛碑〉,《大家來寫村史43—竹塘九塊厝》(彰化:彰化縣文化局,2018年1 月),頁104-106。 「莿桐鄉鄉鎮簡介」,雲林縣社區營造e即通,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年10月2日) 「莿桐鄉鄉鎮簡介」,雲林縣社區營造e即通,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年10月2日) 「西螺泰山石敢當 見證先民開拓史」,《大紀元時報》,2008年10月30日,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年6月11日) 「西螺泰山石敢當 見證先民開拓史」,《大紀元時報》,2008年10月30日,網址:瀏覽日期:2019年6月11日)  「泰山石敢當」,維基百科網站,網址:泰山石敢當(瀏覽日期:2020年9月11日) 「泰山石敢當」,維基百科網站,網址:泰山石敢當(瀏覽日期:2020年9月11日) 「你的好厝邊-厭勝物」,保庇NOW網站,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年9月11日) 「你的好厝邊-厭勝物」,保庇NOW網站,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年9月11日)


Early Memories Along the Banks of the Choushui River

Author: Kuo Lee-Hwan The Choushui River is Taiwan's longest river at a total length of 186.6 kilometers. Flowing primarily from the Sakuma Saddle between the main and eastern peaks of Hehuanshan, the headwaters of the Choushui River continues flowing westward towards the vicinity of Lushan and merges with the Taluowan Creek. It then moves on and flows into the Wanda Creek, Danda Creek and other tributaries. At Shuili, after the headwaters merge into the Chenyoulan creek and Shuili Creek, where the river valley expands. In the Chichi Basin, the river feeds into the Qingshuigou Creek and the Dongpurui River where it then flows into the Changyun Plain. At Bizitou Pass, it flows west through the plain and creates a fluvial fan; Lastly, the Choushui River enters into the Taiwan Strait at the point between Xiahaichang Village in Changhua County's Dacheng Township and Xucuoliao in Yunlin County's Mailiao Township. In bygone days, whenever it would rain heavily or the typhoon season approached, the river course would often change. Rushing waters would overflow along the middle and lower reaches creating flood disasters. Because of this the river embankments have long had records from senior residents of their youths when the floods would bring calamity. To this day, these memories of those awful floods are still with them. Today's Chenggong village in Changhua County's Xizhou Township is on the north shore of the middle reaches. Chenggong village was originally called Hsiaba up until 1955 when its name was changed. There once was a local resident, a Mr. Cheng Chulin, who recalled his"memories of Early Life in Hsiaba."When we talk about this area during the Japanese colonial period, all of what we could see was the riverbed of the Choushui River. Everywhere was filled with sand and silicate. It was difficult for villagers to plow and in any case, the river would often flood. It was very tough living back in those days along the river. Up until the 12th year of the Taisho emperor (1923) following the construction of the dam here on the Choushui River, the waters then began to regularly flow into the Taiwan Straits from canals here. Afterwards, village residents gradually started to have more stable harvests. Born in Hsiaba in Showa 6 (1931), Miss Hsu Cheng-Ai wrote a work on her memories of "having to move because of the Choushui River flooding." Recalling her childhood, she often thinks of the flood disasters along the Choushui that led to the complete submersion of about 3 jia (29097.51 square meters) of her family's farmland. After the disasters, there were periods of time where her family couldn't go out into the fields to do their farm work. Around 1947 at the request of her relatives, the family decided to move to Puli to have a fresh start. At the time, there were about 8 relative's households living in the Hsiaba area who continued onto Puli where today's Liyutan district is located. After a spell, some of her relatives moved back to Hsiaba. Miss Hsu, along with her older brother, decided to remain in Puli, where they have remained to this day. Mr. Liu Bing-ho of Ershui Township in Changhua County (born 1948) describes the deep impressions of his infancy in "the opening up of Xiditian" He writes that in the past, the lowland areas of the riversides were "everyone's" and that they relied on a relative scale through individual ability and strength. When claiming a stake, one had to clear out all of the large rocks and stones in the soil and use them as a border for delineating their land claim, then they had to take the tract of land and level it flat. Next, everyone went out again to the water source and created irrigation channels that would flow into everyone's newly plowed plots. Because of this individual divvying up, the irrigation channels snaked around. Once the waters of the Choushui entered into these irrigation ditches, sand and dirt would accumulate in the ditches and form shallow ponds. When the mud dried up, there would be a thin layer of soil. Farmers would plant peanuts or squashes in this thin layer, and after repeating this process several times, a thicker layer of soil would gradually be deposited. This type of soil is the dark soil of the Choushui River, rich in gypsum minerals. With this kind of soil, the farmers could begin to plant rice in paddies. And yet with such success, in the early years of settlement, whenever a heavy rain or a typhoon would come along, the peoples' riverside plots would bear the brunt of being flooded by the rushing waters of the Choushui, and would sometimes be so badly flooded as to be completely washed away. Owing to this, Mr. Liu Bing-he tells up a proverb about the Choushui River:"It flows east for three years and flows west for four."This proverb describes how the the Choushui River would often change its course. Sometimes it would flow east and the next time following a flood, it might flow west. There wasn't a set fluvial direction. It would flow toward one direction and then sometimes it would go in another. Each time there was a great flood, sometimes the land in one place would be completely eroded away but the other direction would end up depositing thick, fertile land. Occasionally, the amount of water would be very great; sometimes it would land would look as if it had been carved up with deep channels cut away. Sometimes the farm plots opened up on the riverbanks by the populace would completely collapse and would be carried away, joining together with the flood waters passing by. Shuiwei Village as part of Xizhou Township in Changhua County, is situated next to the Xiluo bridge. After many migrations, it's finally been set here at this place. Mr. Zhong Liang-kun (b. 1944), a son of Shuiwei Village, tells us about the"three times that the riverside village of Shuiwei had to move."The local Mr. Zhong's ancestors first arrived along the northern banks of the Hsiluo River during the Qing Period. After having survived several great floods, the villagers had to continuously migrate. Floodwaters once more made their assault in Taisho 2 of the Japanese Colonial Era (1913). One portion of the populace had already retreated up to where today's village is located. Another portion withdrew to the riverbed by the area beneath the bridge in Hsiluo forming a hamlet. The village beneath the bridge was called "ha-chhng." Later in Taisho 8 (1919), the Japanese colonial government rebuilt the embankments of the Choushui River. The entirety of the hamlet was integrated into the levee walls. All the residents could do was to pick up their stakes once more and move to the present village location outside of today's embankment walls. With the residents who had moved here much earlier, both groups of migrants could be said to have had to move three times before forming the present-day Shuiwei Village. Because of this, the residents of Shuiwei Village say they were forced to move to Xizhou from Hsiluo. Apart from the negative memories brought about by floods along the Choushui, there were also some special opportunities for striking it rich. In earlier decades, "scavenging for driftwood" wasn't illegal at all. The experience of scavenging along the riversides of the Choushui was a mutual occurrence for residents living in the middle reaches in Nantou County's Lugu Township, as well as Ershui and Xizhou Townships along the northern banks of the lower reaches of the river in Changhua County, and even in places along the southern banks like Linnei and Hsiluo Townships in Yunlin County. Owing to its location on the shores of the river, there would often be terrible floods in the village of Ruitian in Lugu Township during each rainy season. During such times, villagers would go to the riverbanks to collect fresh timber floating down the river. Timber cut from the mountains was pricey, so villagers would sell the scavenged wood for an exceptionally good price. Even though the nature of this kind of job was very dangerous, there were many people who didn't pay any heed to the dangers of engaging in this type of work. Additionally, in the "1950年代滾滾洪流的濁水溪" pictures taken by Zhao Yuancai, a Hsiluo native, we can see that Hsiluo's bridge wasn't yet completed. Each time the rainy season came along, there would be scenes of the waters of the Choushui rushing by in rapids. We can see from his photographs that there are several people standing and crouching up on the unfinished concrete embankments, looking off at the borderless, swiftly rushing waters. There's an air of hopefulness to their expressions. The far-away four or five equally spaced, dark rectangular objects were part of the unfinished bridge pylons for the Hsiluo Bridge. Many Hsiluo Township residents who grew up in the 50s are very well acquainted with this scenery of the Choushui River. However, since the completion of the Chichi Dam weirs, this kind of scene disappeared forever, never to be seen again. In earlier times, the Choushui River frequently brought dire floods, oftentimes leading to the loss of life and limb and all sorts of property for many residents living by the river's edge, yet in the hundred or so years that have passed, there's been continuous construction of and height-raising of the embankments, gradually changing residents' memories of the Choushui. What was often a common word for many elders in the community, the word "flood," has all but completely disappeared from the mouths of residents today. With new generations of consolidated large-scale public works, the Choushui River has been made to take on a different appearance. References: 洪長源,《溪州鄉情》,彰化:彰化縣溪州鄉公所,1995。 洪長源,《溪州鄉情》,彰化:彰化縣溪州鄉公所,1995。 賴宗寶,《二水采風:南彰化二水鄉自然、人文、風土、民情調查研究》,彰化:彰化縣文化局,2002,頁78。 賴宗寶,《二水采風:南彰化二水鄉自然、人文、風土、民情調查研究》,彰化:彰化縣文化局,2002,頁78。 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北市:衛城出版,2014。 張素玢,《濁水溪三百年:歷史、社會、環境》,新北市:衛城出版,2014。 黃沁杰,《走過羌仔寮》,南投:南投縣鹿谷鄉茶鄉文化協會,2005。 黃沁杰,《走過羌仔寮》,南投:南投縣鹿谷鄉茶鄉文化協會,2005。 彰化縣二水鄉劉炳賀(1948生)報導,2019年4月4日採訪。 彰化縣二水鄉劉炳賀(1948生)報導,2019年4月4日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉水尾村鐘兩昆(1944生)報導,2019年4月12日採訪。 彰化縣溪州鄉水尾村鐘兩昆(1944生)報導,2019年4月12日採訪。 南投縣埔里鎮許鄭愛(1931生)報導,2019年7月24日採訪。 南投縣埔里鎮許鄭愛(1931生)報導,2019年7月24日採訪。


Regional Specialties

Author: Chao Yuen-tsai China's earliest soy sauces were derived from "sauce." It's recorded in the Rites of the Zhou that "The food of the Kings was masterfully prepared by epicureans...whose sauces numbered in the hundreds." Evolving with the times into the Northern Wei period, the imperial court was already using sauces derived from fish and fermented meats. It was later found that fermented substances from inexpensive beans could produce sweet, delicious juices. This is how "bean paste" started to develop into the soy sauces we cherish today. Soy sauces are generally referred to as "soybean oil" within Taiwan, referring to finished products produced from a variety of bean juices that undergo a fermenting process. The earliest people to pass down sauce brewing techniques in Taiwan were the soldiers in Koxinga's army that attacked Taiwan, or the dependents of said soldiers. Many of this group of soldiers and their family members were Hakka people from southern Fujian province. These Hakka grew up in mountainous areas and were often very diligent and thrifty. Each household was adept at using natural resources such as salt, bean yeast, and sun exposure over several days to preserve food conveniently. The earliest Han settlers to migrate to Hsiluo and open up the land was just this very group of Hakka migrants from Fujian province, who were very skilled at brewing and pickling techniques. After this group of Hakka settlers arrived in Taiwan, they passed down their family traditions. Nearly every household could brew soy sauce for their own use, but with the development of agricultural business and a much more finite division of industries and work, some of these households no longer had the spare time to brew soy sauces. Some people who had the money to afford much more exquisite and refined dishes of course couldn't rely on nor be satisfied by the merely average sauces produced within their own households. Consequently, some of the premium sauces made by "skilled brewers" began to build a commodity value and were supplied and marketed. It wasn't just in Hsiluo either. With economic prosperity all across Taiwan, there grew similar needs for the necessity for "soy sauce," and Hsiluo's soy sauces relied on the following advantages to finally create a winning quality product that still produces business opportunities to this day: 1. Use nutrient-dense "oo-tau" (black beans) as a sauce base ingredient which differs from sauces made from soybeans, wheat and other grains. 2. The brewers stick to steaming, yeast culturing, jar storage, exposure to sunlight, and traditional methods of fermentation to brew the sauce. 3. Moderate the water quality and climate stability and add ample sunlight. Black beans can be fully exposed to sunlight for fermentation, which allows for the sauce quality to be both shelf-stable and good quality. This kind of high-quality black bean soy sauce brewed in strict adherence to traditional tried and true brewing methods allowed for Hsiluo soy sauces to become a small household name as early as the 1950s, but the opportunity that really allowed for Hsiluo soy sauces to thrive was when the Hsiluo Bridge was opened to traffic in 1953. At the time, not only did this majestic bridge spanning the Choushui River connect northern and southern Taiwan, but it was also the world's second longest bridge. For travelers heading north and south along this bridge, Hsiluo became a tourist spot, and Hsiluo soy sauces became a best-seller across Taiwan. Hsiluo's soy sauce industry had already been in operation for over 100 years. In the beginning, these businesses were only known as household-run enterprises within their neighborhoods and only slowly did they develop into small-scale profitable businesses. Examples: Wanchuang Soy Sauces had gotten its name early on for selling homemade soy sauce pickles from out of the family home. In 1914 the Chuang family established the "Chuang Yicheng Jiang Yuan." In Showa 16 (1941) during the Japanese colonial period, the company went by the name of "Huwei Soy Sauce Industrial Control Co., Ltd"; at the time, Huwei was the only approved soy sauce manufacturing company; When Datong Soy Sauce had just started up, it was originally selling meatballs and its soy sauce caught on because of the popular flavor of their meatball-dipping sauce. In Meiji 44 (1911), the shop set itself up as the "Da Tong Jiang Yuan," and engaged in soy sauce production and sales; Apart from Wanchuang, Huwei and Datong, the "Chen Yuanhe Soy Sauce" brand has household registration roots dating all the way back to 1888, with the earliest version of the brand going by the name "Yuan Fa Jiang Yuan." These are just a couple of the oldest centenarian soy sauce brands from Hsiluo. In its heyday, there were dozens of Hsiluo soy sauce brands, but aside from three of the oldest hundred-year-old companies mentioned above, the only other six brands that remain include Ruichun, Huatai, Quanxing, Quancheng, Renhe, and Sanzhen. The pivotal point in the decline of Hsiluo soy sauces started around the 1980s with the advent of quick-brewed soy sauces. Lab-created soy sauces, with their short production process and low overhead costs satisfied the needs of the everyday restaurant business and household. Under the influences of a weak business scope and marketing, the Hsiluo soy sauce firms finally lost out to their modernized competitors, and their market prevalence gradually disappeared. However, things started to change again. In an era of cheap, quick-made soy sauces brewed with low overhead costs, there finally came a day when a few people began to consider the value of "slow eating" and "respect for nature." In 2003, the Ministry of Economic Affairs began guiding the transformation of local, traditional brands, followed by a "One town, one specialty" policy. Under the multifaceted encouragement through emphasis on local culture and the promotion of local tourism, the Hsiluo soy sauce industry finally saw a ray of hope. Wanchuang Soy Sauce was the first brand in Yunlin County to establish a sightseeing factory in response to a government policy in 2008. In 2011, Datong Soy Sauces followed in their establishment of the "Oo-Kim Brewing Hall," telling the story of the development of the Hsiluo soy sauce industry over the past hundred years through the "Passage Through Time" exhibit. This was followed in December of 2012, when Ruichun Soy Sauce established the third sightseeing factory with the special display of over two thousand earthenware jars used for fermenting soy sauce. Not only are there the above sightseeing factories, under a philosophy of lowering carbon footprints, Hsiluo soy sauce companies are promoting sauces made from black beans grown locally in Hsiluo as a way of producing an authentic Hsiluo soy sauce. Following the annual holding of the Hsiluo Bridge Cultural Festival and the tourist crowds after the renovation of Yanping Old Street, not only have Hsiluo soy sauce brands that adhere to their traditional brewing techniques regained their footing, these firms are actively seeking change, having come back to life like a phoenix reborn from the ashes. References: 「丸莊醬油」,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年8月15日) 「丸莊醬油」,網址:瀏覽日期:2020年8月15日) 「瑞春醬油」,網址:瀏覽日期2020年8月15日) 「瑞春醬油」,網址:瀏覽日期2020年8月15日)